DNA (short for deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material in most living organisms including organisms and humans. Simply put, DNA is what holds the genetic information from generation to generation and determines all of our biological characteristics.
DNA was first known in 1869, when the Swedish biochemist Friedrich Miescher studied pus stains on a bandage. At this time, he named these strange substances nuclein. However, at this time, it was not possible to prove a link between nuclein and heredity, but it was not until much later, in the early twentieth century, that Thomas Hunt Morgan found evidence of such a link.
Each of your cells has about 3 meters of DNA and your body has 10 trillion cells, straightening them out gives us 600 times the distance from the Sun to the Earth. It’s massive.
Currently, DNA testing is the main form of medical testing to identify genetic problems such as bloodlines, genetic diseases, etc. But surprisingly, your genome is 99.9% similar to your neighbor or someone who is not related by blood. In addition, our genome is 50-60% like a banana, 90% compared to mice, 98% compared to chimpanzees.
Our genome is similar to others.
So how from such a massive set of DNA, one can find 0.1% difference between you and a stranger out there to determine the bloodline? Let’s clarify the following.
Currently, there are many types of DNA samples such as hair, tissue, nails, bones, teeth, …. with almost the same accuracy. With DNA samples of parents and children matching each other in each gene, up to 99.999% of the two specimen owners are related by blood. If the two DNA samples differ from each other by 2 or more genes, then these two samples are not related by blood, only 2 genes are needed.
This process will include 2 steps
Gene sequencing is the work of determining the linkage sequence of bases (A, C, T and G) in a DNA molecule. In this process, almost all of the 3 billion base pairs in the human genome will be “read”.
Analyze your DNA
All the “letters” in your DNA will be put together by the computer in the correct order. Next, the computer will compare your DNA with the DNA of your parents. From there, determine the blood relationship.
In addition to determining blood ties, DNA testing can also detect variations in your DNA that help predict your chances of developing certain genetic diseases.
However, at present, people cannot know the meaning of the entire gene segment, but new methods and techniques are still being researched and developed.